Cancer Evolution – It’s in the Blood!

In the first of our guest blog posts, Dr. Marco Gerlinger highlights some of the remarkable developments being made in ctDNA analysis, a powerful new technology with the potential to transform tumour predictions and treatment outcomes.

Photo credit: Csutkaa via Foter.com / CC BY-NC-SA

Photo credit: Csutkaa via Foter.com / CC BY-NC-SA

Cancer cells are masters in adapting to changing environments. This allows them to colonise other organs, to form metastases and also to acquire drug resistance. Darwinian evolution is thought to be a key driver of this adaptability. Randomly acquired mutations encode for novel phenotypes and some of these phenotypes may allow individual cells to survive changes in the environment1.

This adaptability is a key reason for the high rates of mortality from metastatic cancers. Treating a cancer that cannot evolve would probably be an easy task – maybe as straightforward as eradicating a bacterial infection with antibiotics. Thus, there is great need to understand how and why cancers readily evolve and to use this information to design more effective treatment approaches for ever-changing cancers.
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