Background: Darwin’s branching tree of evolutionary phylogeny

Transmutation notebook B

Charles Darwin’s Transmutation notebook B, 1837

Since the turn of this century, cancer genomics has strongly endorsed the Darwinian view of cancer biology 1,2. Interrogation of the genomes of single cancer cells and multi-regional small biopsies of tumours have allowed us to construct evolutionary histories, or phylogenies, of cancer clones – revealing genetic and cellular architectures very reminiscent of Darwin’s iconic drawing of evolution or speciation 2. Continue reading

Background: What has evolution got to do with cancer?

Charles Darwin by Ernest Edwards albumen print, 1865-1866 NPG x1500 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Charles Darwin
by Ernest Edwards
albumen print, 1865-1866
NPG x1500
© National Portrait Gallery, London

‘No man, even under torture, can say exactly what a tumour is.’
J. Ewing, 1916

What exactly is cancer? Can we capture its biological essence in a few words or a phrase? For the ancient Greeks, it was a manifestation of black bile, or constitutional melancholy. The common understanding today is that it reflects renegade, mutant cells proliferating out of control, with a potentially lethal consequence: a territorial hijack of essential, normal tissue functions. Continue reading